The Ebola outbreak in West Africa caused global alarm. As one of the world's most infectious and deadly diseases the level of fear surrounding Ebola is to an extent expected. However, much of the fear is rooted in misunderstandings. Dispelling these is a major challenge in tackling Ebola and is critical to furthering our knowledge about the disease and efforts to control it.
At IDS, researchers are investigating the complex forces behind the emergence and spread of diseases which are transmitted from animals to people and are known as zoonoses. Although Ebola is now being spread by human-to-human contact, it is zoonotic in origin. Fruit bats are thought to be the most likely natural host for the Ebola virus. IDS researchers are also investigating the social contexts in which zoonoses often emerge and the contending narratives surrounding disease control. Research – drawing together social and natural science, and engaged with local people, international agencies, and national and local governments and practitioners - can lead to better theory, improved mutual comprehension, and better-informed measures and practices to manage and control disease.
Misunderstanding one: Chopping down trees causes Ebola
While there is good evidence that bats are the natural reservoir for the Ebola virus, the complex interactions that cause the disease to spillover to humans are as yet unclear.
A popular environmental narrative claims that rapid and unprecedented deforestation of primary forests is leading to increased human-bat contact in West Africa for the first time, making transmission of the disease to people from bats more likely. However, research by IDS's Melissa Leach and others has shown the upper Guinea forests have been a dynamic mosaic of forest, savannah, and farmland for centuries, with people in this region having long co-habited with bats.
Over-simplified views of one-way deforestation feed popular ideas that stereotype and blame rapacious farmers and loggers for their current disease predicament. They do not help us understand Ebola's origins. Meanwhile misleading messages that Ebola comes from eating bushmeat have dangerously deterred people's appreciation of the real risks of transmission – from bodily contact with infected humans.
Find out more:
- Ebola in Guinea - people, patterns and puzzles. Melissa Leach blogs at Lancet Global Health
- Misreading the Africa Landscape: Society and Ecology in a Forest-Savanna Mosaic. Book authored by James Fairhead and Melissa Leach (1996)
- Haemorrhagic Fevers in Africa: Narratives, Politics and Pathways of Disease and Response. STEPS Centre Working Paper by Melissa Leach
Misunderstanding two: People in Africa are ignorant of effective ways to deal with diseases like Ebola
The difficulties medical teams have sometimes had in establishing effective community relations during the current Ebola epidemic have led to some wild generalisations. People in West Africa are not living in archaic, unchanging tradition, refusing to engage with modern concepts of health.
However, the dimensions of cultural context remain real and relevant as disease possibilities, and therefore as logical explanations of worrying events and circumstances, even to the educated. People can live with multiple framings of disease and outside intervention, and can switch between them according to context. So, although outside scientific knowledge is crucial to containing the Ebola virus, local public behaviours and attitudes can and should be seen as part of cultural logics that make sense given regional history, social institutions and experience.
For this reason, an anthropological perspective is important for disease control efforts, which should include building good community relations, working with traditional authorities and seeking to understand local ideas and practices.
Find out more:
- Ebola Response Anthropology Platform. Co-ordinated by anthropologists at Londong School of Hygene and Tropical Medicine, IDS and the Universities of Sussex and Exeter, this platform aims to contribute to a co-ordinated, adaptive and iterative response to the Ebola outbreak.
- Time to put Ebola in Context. Interview with Melissa Leach in the Bulletin of the World Health Organization
- Ebola: failures, flashpoints and focus. Blog by Anne Wilkinson on the STEPS Centre blog
- Ebola: The Challenges. Summary of roundtable event held as part of African Studies Association Conference 2014
Misunderstanding three: Ebola is a one-off event
Ebola is one of a group of diseases transmitted to people from animals that are known as zoonoses. Ebola is rightly gaining much attention as it was only identified in 1976, is extremely contagious and has a high fatality rate. It is also proving far more difficult to control than previous epidemics of zoonotic disease such as SARS and avian influenza.
However, since 1940, more than 60 per cent of infectious diseases newly affecting people in Africa have been transmitted via animals. Globally, the top 13 zoonotic diseases are responsible for 2.2 million human deaths every year, most in low- and middle-income countries. Even where they don't kill, their effects still devastate poor people's lives and hamper development efforts. Ebola is a terrible disease, but known deaths from it still number fewer than 8,000 to date.
To say all this is to highlight the terrible impact of other zoonoses, which receive relatively little attention. It is also to stress the importance of increasing our knowledge about neglected zoonoses. IDS researchers are working alongside vets, geographers, epidemiologists and others in multidisciplinary projects helping to tease out the complex forces behind zoonotic disease emergence and transmission, offering new theory as well as practical solutions.
It is not reason to be less concerned about Ebola. The current exponential increase in Ebola infections and the resulting terrible social, economic and political consequences demonstrates the dangers and tragedies of an unchecked epidemic. It also highlights the underlying development and health system failures that have contributed to this becoming a crisis of such proportions.
Find out more:
- Ebola and beyond: Equality, sustainability, security - interlaced challenges in a global development era. Sussex Development Lecture, background document and podcast by Melissa Leach
- Ebola: Difficult questions for development. Huffington Post blog by Ian Scoones
- The Dynamic Drivers of Disease in Africa Consortium is a 20-partner, multidisciplinary international research programme considering the linkages between zoonoses, ecosystems and wellbeing.
- STEPS Centre researchers are working on a range of other zoonoses-related projects. This October, STEPS Centre researchers will begin work with a new four-year research consortium, Social, Economic and Environmental Drivers of Zoonoses in Tanzania (SEEDZ).
Image credit: European Commission DG ECHO (cc on Flickr)
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Impact and Implications of the Ebola Crisis
This rapid literature review looks at the available evidence on the impact of the Ebola crisis on four key areas: political, economic, social, and security. More details
Briefing: Ebola–Myths, Realities, and Structural ViolenceAfrican Affairs 114 (2014)
This briefing examines responses to the Ebola outbreak and offers a different set of explanations, rooted in the history of the region and the political economy of global health and development. More details
Understanding and Managing Zoonotic Risk in the New Livestock IndustriesEnvironmental Health Perspectives 121 (2013)
Here we present the diverse range of ecological, biological, and socioeconomic factors likely to enhance or reduce zoonotic risk, and identify ways in which a comprehensive risk analysis may be conducted by using an interdisciplinary approach. We also offer a conceptual framework to guide systematic research on this problem. More details
Zoonoses - From Panic to PlanningIDS Rapid Response Briefing 2 (2013)
Over two thirds of all human infectious diseases have their origins in animals. The rate at which these zoonotic diseases have appeared in people has increased over the past 40 years, with at least 43 newly identified outbreaks since 2004. More details
Epidemics: Science, Governance and Social Justice
Recent disease events such as SARS, H1N1 and avian influenza, and haemorrhagic fevers have focussed policy and public concern as never before on epidemics and so-called 'emerging infectious diseases'. More details
Misreading the African Landscape: Society and Ecology in a Forest-Savanna Mosaic
Islands of dense forest in the savanna of 'forest' Guinea have long been regarded as the last relics of a once more extensive forest cover, degraded and degrading fast due to its inhabitants' land use. More details
Ebola: How can we integrate science, policy and politics?05 Mar 2015
By Melissa Leach
What Ebola tells us about how to do state-building03 Mar 2015
By Richard Mallett, Paul Harvey
What lessons can development learn from the Ebola crisis?27 Feb 2015
By Catherine Grant
Ebola: exposing the failure of international development25 Feb 2015
By Amber Huff
Why we need to improve the lives of Ebola survivors as part of prevention12 Nov 2014
By Pauline Oosterhoff
Melissa Leach on Ebola & inequality – lecture text & audio22 Oct 2014
By Melissa Leach
Global health meets genomics: inequalities and politics08 Aug 2014
By Melissa Leach
Ebola - failures, flashpoints and focus16 Jul 2014
By Annie Wilkinson