ESRC-FCDO Research for Policy and Practice

Education Accountability Relationships Between Schools, Communities, and Government in India

Published on 1 September 2020

Despite widespread recognition of the challenge to improve learning outcomes and the need to shift education systems away from traditional input orientation, there has been relatively little attention paid to how basic education is governed.

The robustness of accountability relationships and processes between schools, communities, and government within India’s education system largely determine whether learning outcomes are enabled or inhibited. Gaps remain in our understanding of how these processes intersect with inequality, and how they can help the most marginalised. There remains relatively little debate on the kind of governance structures needed within the education system in order to strengthen accountability relationships in education. This ESRC-FCDO-funded research is an important effort to bridge this gap. The research seeks to enhance our understanding of accountability relationships, how they function, and with what effect on learning outcomes, in both the short and long term. The research offers not only relevant, contextual evidence, but also highlights key implications for policy and practice.

Publication details

published by
REAL Centre, University of Cambridge, and The Impact Initiative
The Impact Initiative


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