Journal Article


Exploring Discourses of Indigeneity and Rurality in Mikea Forest Environmental Governance

Published on 1 November 2012

This article examines discourses of indigeneity and rurality that define and classify different categories of resource users in the context of Mikea Forest environmental governance.

Many Malagasy peoples live in, have deep cultural ties with, and directly depend on the island’s forests, but Mikea people are the only to be legally recognized as ‘indigenous peoples’ as defined by Operational Directive 4.20 of the World Bank. In policy documents, scholarship, and media productions, Mikea people are represented as a small, culturally distinct population of primitive forest foragers. In contrast, other subsistence producers living in the region are represented as invasive and harmful to Mikea people and the Mikea Forest environment. However, there are significant incongruities between these representations and local history, cultural norms, and social – environmental realities.

While the intent of international norms for indigenous rights in conservation and development contexts is to mitigate risk of harm and improve democratic participation among historically underrepresented peoples, this case highlights how imposed notions of indigeneity can in some cases actually increase local vulnerabilities. Mikea Forest environmental policies should be amended to mitigate risk of insecurities faced by a broad range of forest residents, Mikea and non – Mikea, due to socio – political exclusions, restricted livelihoods, and reduced territorial rights.


Amber Huff

Resource Politics and Environmental Change Cluster Lead

Publication details

published by
Madagascar Conservation and Development
Huff, Amber
Madagascar Conservation and Development, volume 7, issue 2S


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