As Viet Nam’s economy is developing rapidly, greenhouse gas emissions from growth in the use of fossil fuels are increasing. Energy demand in industry, transport and households is rising, and major investments in energy efficiency as well as in electricity generation are needed. Climate change challenges have been recognized by the Government of Viet Nam, and a National Target Program to Respond to Climate Change (NTP-RCC) was approved in December 2008. The NTP-RCC includes research and assessment of vulnerabilities and piloting of adaptation measures, and supports low carbon development. Under the NTP-RCC, all key sectors and provinces including city municipalities must formulate Action Plans on climate change and mainstream responses to climate change in overall social economic development strategies.