Working Paper

IDs Discussion Paper 364

Knowing Me, Knowing You: Social Networks in the Surgical Instrument Cluster of Sialkot, Pakistan

Published on 1 January 1998

The paradox in the industrial district model is understanding how the divergent tendencies of local competition and cooperation are mediated. Social network are said to provide mechanisms that regulate inter-firm relations and facilitate the flow of knowledge within the confines of the district. Empirical evidence of this, particularly from the South, is limited.

This paper draws on the case of the export-oriented surgical instrument cluster of Sialkot in Pakistan. It shows how social networks, based on kinship, family and localness, influence production relations, and how the impact of these interlinked local social networks have changed over time. The economic and social reputation that comes from being local is central to vertical and horizontal inter-firm relations within the cluster. Building social and economic ties with external agents is, however, also becoming important, especially to acquire the technical know-how necessary to remain competitive in global markets.

Access this publication

Download as PDF PDF

Publication details

published by
Nadvi, K.
IDS Discussion Paper, issue 364
1 85864 217 5


About this publication


Related content


The sanitation circular economy - rhetoric vs. reality

Deepa Joshi & 2 others

18 March 2024