Summaries This article examines the process of transformation of the legal framework of contractual relationships in transition economies by looking at the case of Bulgaria in the period 1990–97. The aim is to throw light on the state of the legal preconditions for establishing an economic system based on freedom of contract and on enforcement of contractual obligations. The first part of the article focuses on the development of the substantive regulation of commercial contract and its problems in a post? totalitarian setting. The second part identifies the different mechanisms of conflict resolution and enforcement. The emphasis is on evaluating the role of the Judiciary and the factors accounting for that role.