Malaria, HIV and tuberculosis (TB) are significant public health concerns in Mozambique. Malaria was the fourth leading cause of death in the country in 2019, accounting for 42% of deaths among children under 5 years of age (Mugabe et al., 2021; USAID, 2018).
Mozambique is among the top eight countries with the highest HIV prevalence; with the second highest mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) rate in the world (Fuente-Soro et al., 2021; Nacarapa et al., 2021). The incidence of TB is rising, with pediatric TB cases almost tripling in recent years (WHO, 2020b; Nguenha et al., 2018; Orlando et al., 2018).
Mozambique has one of the highest global incidence of malaria-HIV and TB-HIV co-infection, which raises the likelihood of poor clinical outcomes (Moon et al., 2019; USAID, 2018). This rapid literature review highlights key aspects of the epidemiology of malaria, HIV and TB in Mozambique and challenges in prevention, detection and treatment; and surveys select interventions that seek to address these challenges.
This is part of a series of Knowledge, Evidence and Learning for Development (K4D) programme reports looking into Epidemiology of Malaria, human immune deficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) across a set of African Nations.