Frontiers of CLTS 7

Norms, Knowledge and Usage

Published on 1 January 2016

The partial or total non-use of toilets, with some or all in a household defecating in the open, is a growing concern. Although all households may have a toilet, communities cannot remain open defecation free unless they are always used by everyone. This is not just an issue of maintenance and accessibility but also of social norms, mind-sets, and cultural preferences. The problem is widespread but most evident in India. 

This issue of Frontiers of CLTS asks how serious the problem is, why it occurs, what can be done about it, and what more needs to be known. It is an attempt to summarise current knowledge as a first step in exploring and learning about this growing obstacle to attaining and sustaining ODF status in some parts of the world.

This publication is also available for downloading in Hindi (pdf), French (pdf) and Portuguese (pdf). 


Jamie Myers

Research and Learning Manager

Robert Chambers

Research Associate

Naomi Vernon

Programme and Communications Manager

Publication details

published by
Chambers, R. and Myers, J.
Frontiers of CLTS: Innovations and Insights, issue 7


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