This report was produced by the Institute for Development Studies (IDS) and Action Aid Nepal. It is an output of the programme ‘Planning, learning, monitoring and evaluation activities for the South East Nepal Hotspot’. The programme aims to support learning about the most effective community and NGO activities in combatting modern day slavery and bonded labour in the Freedom Fund South East Nepal Hotspot.
The programme is funded by the Freedom Fund and directed by IDS. This report provides a summary overview of the results of the participatory action research undertaken by five NGOs in South East Nepal, with documented evidence of adults and children working through a system of agricultural bonded labour known as Harwa-Charwa.