Participatory statistics to measure prevalence in bonded labour hotspots in Nepal: Report on findings of the baseline study

Published on 1 July 2017

Forced labour of adults and children in the agricultural sector in Nepal is a well-documented problem. This report details a baseline study of bonded labour in three districts in South East Nepal with documented evidence of adults and children working through a system of agricultural bonded labour known as Harwa-Charwa.

The baseline study focuses on NGO intervention areas over time with a view to seeing whether and how NGO interventions are impacting on prevalence and the factors that enhance the risks of bondage.

This report was produced by the Institute for Development Studies (IDS), Action Aid Nepal, and the Praxis Institute for Participatory Practices (India) for the Freedom Fund – a programme that aims to contribute significantly to the eradication of this form of bonded labour. The Freedom Fund and seven partner organisations in south-eastern Nepal are focusing geographically on “hotspots” where Harwa-Charwa is most prevalent.


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Pauline Oosterhoff

Research Fellow

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Danny Burns

Professorial Research Fellow

Bishnu Prasad Sharma

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