Summaries What is the relationship between rural?urban migration and poverty? This article takes up this question, which is by no means new, but about which there is no consensus. The importance of migration for urban as well as for rural areas, for poverty and for poverty alleviation policies is considerable, and the article indicates that more research is needed, particularly taking into account both sides of the migration streams. Rates of urbanisation, which have remained low in countries like India, underestimate the importance of migration. Migrants in cities continue to maintain close links with, and return to, their areas of origin, thus limitiing urban population growth and complicating analyses and policies. The article, focusing on migration to Calcutta but also drawing on all?India survey data and other evidence, discusses the following issues: the role of poverty versus inequality in migration; the migrants’ districts of origin; the socio?economic background of migrants; the migrants’ income and expenditure, compared to non?migrating groups; and whether migrants are able to improve their income over time.