Over the last decade, the avian influenza virus, H5N1, has spread across most of Asia and Europe and parts of Africa. There has, as yet, been no human pandemic, although 245 deaths have been reported since 2003. A major international response has been launched, backed by over $2 billion of public money.
Huge numbers of poultry have been culled, vaccination campaigns have been implemented and markets have been restructured. These efforts have affected the livelihoods and businesses of millions. This paper asks: what lessons can we learn from this experience, and what does this mean for future efforts to respond to emerging infectious diseases under the One World, One Health initiative?