Journal Article


The Triple C Approach to Local Industrial Policy

Published on 1 January 1996

In both developed and developing countries there is mounting evidence that clustering and networking help small- and medium-sized manufacturers to raise their competitiveness. The role of public policy in this process is less clear.

The European experience suggests that local and regional government can play an important role. Equally, if not more, interesting experiences can be found in developing countries. Their analysis constitutes the core of this paper. The lessons can be summarised as the “Triple C” which stands for customer-oriented, collective and cumulative.

Cite this publication

Humphrey, J. and Schmitz, H. (1996) 'The Triple C Approach to Local Industrial Policy', World Development 24: 1859-1877. doi: 10.1016/S0305-750X(96)00083-6


John Humphrey

Professorial Fellow

Hubert Schmitz

Emeritus Fellow

Publication details

Humphrey, J. and Schmitz, H.
World Development, volume 24, issue 12


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