Violations of religious freedom are increasing globally in scale, depth and blatancy. Carried out by both government and non-state actors, they range from the mundane (e.g. administrative restrictions) to the extreme (e.g. genocide). A multi-layered, multi-actor approach is needed to protect and promote freedom of religion or belief. The literature stresses that approaches to protect and promote FRB must be multi-layered, encompassing human rights, conflict resolution, development and interfaith initiatives – and as such, they should involve multiple actors. The review clearly shows that women are particularly affected by religious freedom violations, with the generally subservient role of women in many societies reflected in obstacles to their full enjoyment of FRB. Nothing was found on threats to FRB specifically from the perspective of persons with disabilities.