Summaries This article interrogates the impulses behind the current interest in men and masculinities within a gender and development framework. It argues that the Women and Development agenda, which was propelled onto the development co?operation stage in the 1970s, was inspired by Second Wave feminism and the anti imperialist and civil rights movements of that era. However, the men and masculinities agenda does not have a parallel political origin or passion. Whilst feminists and gender analysis are committed to extending the gender agenda to men as well as women, and take a range of positions from male exclusion to male co?option, there is a striking silence from main(male)?stream development experts. Those men who are involved are largely from out?side the development co?operation field, but include many who are involved with challenging both politically and academically dominant theories and positionalities of men and masculinities in developing countries and in development institutions and international social science. But the involvement of men from Scandinavian mainstream development agencies also suggests that it is the position of men in particular societies and their relationship with the state and their labour markets, as much as the policy and political relevance of men and masculinities in development practice, which is the key to extending this agenda.