The K4D helpdesk service provides brief summaries of current research, evidence, and lessons learned. Helpdesk reports are not rigorous or systematic reviews; they are intended to provide an introduction to the most important evidence related to a research question. They draw on a rapid desk-based review of published literature and consultation with subject specialists. Most of the evidence concentrates on the nutrition of vulnerable groups – mainly very young children and CBA. The little data available on nutritional status of the elderly is for those living in residential homes. For men, published evidence relates to Syrian refugees in neighbouring countries and is therefore not given here. The report includes findings from BSG areas such as Damascus, Deir-ez-Zor, Hama, Homs, Madaya in Rural Damascus, as well as hard-to-reach (HTR) areas, e.g. Al-Hassakeh. Data from newly accessible areas in Aleppo, Lattakia, and Tartous governorates is also included.