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IDS Annual Review 2020-21

This has been an extraordinary year for the Institute. The Covid-19 pandemic and its health, social, economic and political impacts have created massive disruptions, transforming how people live and organisations function throughout the world. The challenges it has brought to how we at...

8 October 2021

Working Paper

Can Tax Agents Support Tax Compliance in Low-Income Countries? A Review of the Literature and some Preliminary Evidence from Uganda

ICTD Working Paper 128

Since the late 1970s, many countries have based their tax systems on self-assessment – taxpayers are expected to evaluate their liabilities autonomously, and voluntarily remit their tax due. If the tax system is perceived as fair and easy to navigate, with credible threat of penalisation for...

Fredrick Kalyango

1 October 2021

Journal Article

Effectiveness of Cash-plus Programmes on Early Childhood Outcomes Compared to Cash Transfers Alone: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis in Low- and Middle-income Countries

To strengthen the impact of cash transfers, these interventions have begun to be packaged as cash-plus programmes, combining cash with additional transfers, interventions, or services. The intervention’s complementary (“plus”) components aim to improve cash transfer effectiveness by...

Madison Little & 6 others

28 September 2021


Student Wellbeing in Contexts of Protracted Violent Conflict

IDS Policy Briefing 184

In contexts of protracted violent conflict, school environments play a key role in children’s psychological, social, and emotional wellbeing. Research by the REALISE education project in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) provides a better understanding of how violent conflict...

14 September 2021