Journal Article


Tenofovir-linked Hyperparathyroidism is Independently Associated with the Presence of Vitamin D Deficiency

Published on 15 August 2010

To determine patient and treatment characteristics associated with vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in an UK inner city HIV-1-positive adult cohort.


Two hundred twenty-seven HIV-positive patients attending prospectively for routine blood tests in winter had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations and other routine chemistry measured.

Those with and without VDD were defined as having serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations <50 nmol/L and >75 nmol/L, respectively. Characteristics were compared between patients with and without VDD. The effects of VDD, tenofovir use, and their interaction on chemical measures were investigated.


VDD was found in 57% (131 of 227) of patients. Independent associations included non-white ethnicity [adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 7.40 (2.52 to 21.7)], higher random blood glucose [2.38 (1.24 to 4.57) per mmol/L], higher estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR: 1.04 (1.01 to 1.06)], and higher PTH [1.19 (1.00 to 1.42)]. PTH was higher in those receiving tenofovir (median 7.2 pmol/L) than other patients (4.3; P < 0.001) overall, but high PTH with tenofovir occurred only in the context of VDD. Tenofovir use was not associated with serum creatinine or eGFR overall but interacted with vitamin D status (P = 0.05 and P = 0.08, respectively), being linked to somewhat higher creatinine and lower eGFR among patients without VDD but higher eGFR in VDD patients.


25(OH) VDD is associated with tenofovir-linked hyperparathyroidism and also with higher eGFR.


Annie Wilkinson

Health and Nutrition Cluster Lead

Publication details

Rosenvinge, M., Gedela, K., Copas, A., Wilkinson, A., et al.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, volume 54, issue 5


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