This report analyses the implications for development of the recent wave of closures of civic space that has primarily affected human rights-based and liberal democratic organizations – non-governmental organizations (NGOs), civil society organizations (CSOs) and the media – in countries around the world. This synthesis report summarizes the findings of a larger study funded by the ACT Alliance, which includes a literature review, 12 desk-based country studies, and four country case studies.
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Hossain, N.; Khurana, N.; Nazneen, S.; Oosterom, M.; Schröder, P. and Shankland, Alex (2019) Development Needs Society - The Implications of Civic Space for the Sustainable Development Goals, Geneva: ACT Alliance
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