This book is about the role of government in the hi-tech modernization of developing countries. Should such countries concentrate on using the new technology or should they also produce it? What costs and benefits are associated with each strategy and how politically feasible are they? One of the most controversial experiences in producing and using electronics based technology is that of Brazil. For many years its policy regime of reserving the internal market for national producers has attracted international attention. This book gives a comprehensive assessment of this policy and draws out what other countries can learn from it.