Development has generally treated sexuality as a problem – considering it only in relation to population control, family planning, disease and violence. However, sexuality has far broader impacts on people’s well-being and ill-being. Using Robert Chambers’ framework of the multiple dimensions of poverty, this IDS Policy Briefing highlights the many links between sexuality and poverty and suggests constructive ways to engage with sexuality as a development issue. It looks at how we can take a broader and more positive approach to sexuality, and how we can foster an environment that enables people to live out healthier, happier sexualities free from violence and fear. It gives examples of action which shifts the focus from negative to positive, from violence to pleasure, and shows how development can approach sexuality through health, human rights and sexual rights, gender, and religion.