Overview: This report looked across Covid Collective outputs and grouped findings into three sections. Section 2) Pandemic response; Section 3) Increased marginalisation; and Section 4) Emergent outcomes. Section 4 describes outcomes, both positive and negative, which evolved and were more unpredictable in nature. Pandemic response: Findings on national response highlight shortfalls in national government actions in Bangladesh, Malawi, the Philippines, Yemen, and Syria.
Emergency law responses have, in some cases, led states to exert powers with no legal basis. In transitioning economies, state militarisation is having negative effects on constitutionalism and peacebuilding. Lack of trust in state security institutions is identified as an issue in Yemen. Improved consultation between the community, government and security institutions is needed. From a micro perspective, lockdowns were found to hit households close to subsistence the hardest bringing restrictions in to question with regards to welfare choices. Regional responses had different features (outlined in section 2).
It is suggested for future research to look at how regional responses have changed interactions between regional and global organisations. The Islamic Development Bank, for example, helped function as a redistribution pool to improve inequalities between country capacities in the Middle East. The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) supported accurate information reporting. International response with regard to vaccination is falling short in terms of equality between developed and developing economies. World Bank response is questioned for being insufficient in quantity and inefficient in delivery.