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Working Paper

The Impact of Public Policy on the Banking System in Nigeria

IDS working papers;31

The banking system in Nigeria has undergone radical changes during the 35 years since independence. Banking developed from an industry which in 1960 was dominated by a small number of foreign owned banks into one in which public sector ownership predominated in the 1970s and 1980s and in which...

1 January 1996

Working Paper

Financial Policies and the Banking System in Zambia

IDS working papers;32

For over 20 years until the early 1990s Zambia had entailed extensive government ownership and administrative controls over markets, including financial and banking markets. Interventionist policies, combined with a steep fall in the external terms of trade, led to economic decline.

1 January 1996

Working Paper

The Potential for Donor Mediation in NGO-State Relations: An Ethiopian Case Study

IDS working papers;33

Relations between NGOs and states are often characterised by conflict, since each actor is in competition for development resources. This paper looks at situations where cooperation offers benefits to both parties but where conflict remains. It argues that cooperation can offer benefits to both...

1 January 1996

Working Paper

The Limited Impact of Financial Sector Reforms in Zimbabwe

IDS working papers;36

The post-independence Zimbabwe government did not interfere significantly with the operations of the banking system, despite the existence of a large government-owned commercial bank, and a commitment to socialist ideology and to reducing inequality.

1 January 1996

Working Paper

The Conceptualization of ‘Trust’ in Economic Thought

IDS working papers;35

This paper focuses on the emergence of trust in economic thought and clarifies its conceptualisation as a term used to identify a purely calculative theory of behaviour in which agents form subjective probabilities regarding the future action of others.

1 January 1996

Working Paper

Commons and Collectives: The Lack of Social Capital in Central Asia’s Land Reforms

IDS Working Paper 40

Current debate about land and agrarian reform in the post-Soviet Central Asian republics tends to be couched in terms of stark choices between state, collective and private ownership. There is little discussion of the full range of potential tenure arrangements in the 'middle ground' between...

1 January 1996

Working Paper

Banking Policy in Botswana: Orthodox but Untypical

IDS working papers;39

Financial sector policy in Botswana was unusual. In most other African countries, newly independent governments intervened extensively in the ownership, management and credit allocation of domestic banks.

1 January 1996