This report critically examines the modalities of development cooperation and experiences of China and United Kingdom‘s (UK) engagements in Kenya and Sri Lanka. Given the increasing importance of China and the UK in development cooperation and assistance, and the new approaches that they bring to such cooperation, understanding the modalities of their engagement may provide useful insights into how partnerships may be cultivated and deepened to realise the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The report explores the idea of partnerships and, through two country case studies, explores the nature, function and rationale for interaction engagement by China and the UK in Kenya and Sri Lanka. It maps the current national priorities of Sri Lanka and Kenya and their ongoing cooperation with the UK and China. It identifies areas in which cooperation can be deepened, as well as the convergences between national priorities and UK and/or Chinese expertise.