At the end of violent conflict, the most difficult task for most countries is the reintegration of former combatants into civilian life and employment. Failure to do this can leave the door open for further protests and social disorder.
In 2009, after a five-year armed rebellion by militants against the government and the oil industry in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, the presidency implemented the Post-Amnesty Programme (PAP). Unfortunately, the PAP’s design failed to take the labour needs of the private sector into account, leaving many ex-combatants without the right skills to find employment and reliant on a monthly stipend from the government. The Nigerian government needs a deeper understanding of the private sector to mitigate the risk of rising unemployment and a breakdown of law and order in the Niger Delta.