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Financial Inclusion in a Refugee Response

K4D Helpdesk Report

The growing scope, frequency, and complexity of forced displacement, both inside and outside of countries, has pushed donors and other development groups to rethink their approaches to humanitarian crises, particularly on refugee response. Financial inclusion is widely regarded as a...

18 August 2021

Working Paper

Tax Treaty Aggressiveness: Who is Undermining Taxing Rights in Africa?

ICTD Working Paper 125

Tax avoidance strategies by multinational companies rely heavily on tax treaties. Multinational companies can relocate financial activities across countries to ensure the applicability of the most beneficial tax treaties. This ‘treaty shopping’ can be particularly harmful to African...

Lucas Millán-Narotzky & 3 others

1 July 2021


Youth and the Rural Economy in Africa: Hard Work and Hazard

This book unites recent findings from quantitative and qualitative research from across Africa to illuminate how young men and women engage with the rural economy and imagine their futures, and how development policies and interventions can find traction with these realities. Through framing,...

1 April 2021

Journal Article

Channeling Contraband: How States Shape International Smuggling Routes

Although smuggling is commonly assumed to happen in remote and difficult-to-access borderlands, in reality, smuggling is most prevalent in areas that states tightly control, including at formal border crossings. To understand this puzzle, this article explores the relationship between states...

Florian Weigand

12 March 2021

Journal Article

Critical Transitions from Pastoralism to Ranching in Central Africa

Current Anthropology 62.1

The goal of this paper is to explain why and how increasing commoditization and incorporation in the market economy are only now leading to a critical transition from pastoralism to ranching in Central Africa. While there are similarities between pastoralism and capitalism—in both systems,...

Image of Ian Scoones
Ian Scoones & 3 others

15 February 2021

Working Paper

What is Wrong with African Tax Administration?

ICTD Research in Brief;63

National tax administrations in sub-Saharan Africa have undergone considerable reform in recent decades. In a number of respects, they are, on average, more reformed and more efficient than tax administrations in other low income regions of the world. They have responded effectively to a number...

4 December 2020